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Publications

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Vision zur Zukunft der Berufs-, Studien-, und Laufbahnberatung

Andreas Hirschi

Bericht im Auftrag des Staatssekretariats für Bildung, Forschung und Innovation SBFI im Rahmen des Projekts «Berufsbildung 2030 – Vision und Strategische Leitlinien»

Der Bericht nimmt eine umfassende Analyse der aktuellen und zukünftigen Herausforderungen und Chancen der Berufs-, Studien-, und Laufbahnberatung (BSLB) vor und entwirft eine Vision, wie die BSLB ihre zunehmende Systemrelevanz optimal wahrnehmen kann.

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Lifespan Perspectives on Careers and Career Development

Andreas Hirschi

Nagy, N., Froidevaux, A., & Hirschi, A. (2018). Lifespan perspectives on careers and career development In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work Across the Lifespan (Vol. 1): Elsevier.

Abstract

This chapter intends to contribute to a better understanding of career development over the lifespan by examining individual and contextual factors contributing to life-long career development. Considering manifold changes in the work environment as well as throughout an individual’s career, we review classic theories of career development in the beginning of this chapter. We then describe changes in today’s careers, and depict modern career theories, such as the protean or the boundaryless career. Subsequently, we elaborate on sources of change over the lifespan from an individual perspective: We explain how changes in personality, work values, or goal setting influence career development. From an organizational perspective, we describe how changes in the psychological contract or various age norms may influence the career development of employees. In the last part of this chapter, we outline central career developmental issues for individuals over the lifespan and point out recommendations for organizations in order to help promote meaningful, fulfilling, and sustainable career development over the lifespan. 

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Achieving work-family balance: An action regulation model

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Shockley, K. M., & Zacher, H. (in press). Achieving work-family balance: An action regulation model. Academy of Management Review.

Abstract

Work and family are highly intertwined for many individuals. Despite this, individual-level strategies for achieving effectiveness and satisfaction across work and family roles have not received sufficient attention. We address this issue by conceptualizing work-family balance from an action regulation perspective as the successful joint pursuit of work and family goals. Building on insights from the work-family literature, action regulation theory, and multiple goals research, we propose a theoretical model that explains how people can jointly attain work and family goals by using four action strategies (i.e., allocating resources, changing resources and barriers, sequencing goals, and revising goals). We address the conditions under which each strategy is used, depending on the malleability of resources and barriers for goal attainment, time to deadline of goals, as well as feedback and monitoring of progress across work and family goals. Our model offers new insights and research implications regarding work-family balance and helps develop practical interventions that result in improved management of the work-family interface.

 

Keywords: action regulation; multiple goals; work-family balance 

Living one's calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Keller, A. & Spurk D. (2018). Living one’s calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106, 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2017.12.001

Abstract

Recent research on calling has pointed to the important distinction between having and living a calling in order to explain the positive effects of callings on well-being. However, how the link between having a calling and living a calling might be explained has only been partially addressed. In the present study, we focused on the neglected role of workplace characteristics as key factors in this regard. In a sample of 232 working adults in Germany, we established that presence of calling and living a calling were significantly related to job resources in terms of decision-making autonomy, task significance, and social support at work. Moreover, presence of calling and living a calling positively related to level of education, leadership position, and salary. Testing indirect effects with bootstrapping analyses, we found that job resources, specifically decision-making autonomy and task significance, partially mediated the relation of presence of calling with living a calling, while controlling for educational level and leadership position. The results support the idea that living a calling is not just about finding work that fits one’s calling. People who have a calling are also more likely to live their calling by working in jobs with more job resources.

 

Keywords: Presence of calling; living a calling; work characteristics; job resources

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The perceived influence of role models and early career development in native and migrant youth

Andreas Hirschi

Valero, D., Keller, A. & Hirschi, A. (in press). The perceived influence of role models and early career development in native and migrant youth. Journal of Career Development.

Abstract

Role models provide youth with valuable information on how to pursue their career goals. However, whether the presence of role models is related to career development beyond social support has not been sufficiently addressed. We investigated how perceived role model influence and social support were related to goal engagement among 191 students and to work engagement among 500 apprentices, and whether these effects were mediated by occupational self-efficacy. We further examined differences between native and migrant youth. Data were analyzed using multi-group structural equation modeling. Our results suggested that engagement was related to role model influence beyond its relationship with social support among students and apprentices. However, this relationship was not found for migrant students. There were no significant indirect effects of role model influence on engagement via self-efficacy among students and apprentices. Our results suggest that role models should be acknowledged as a distinct facilitator of adolescents’ work-related engagement.

Keywords: role models, engagement, social support, migrant youth

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A psychological description of the Swiss labor market from 1991 to 2014: Occupational interest types, gender, salary, and skill level

Andreas Hirschi

Ghetta, A., Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., & Rossier, J. (2018). A Psychological Description of the Swiss Labor Market from 1991 to 2014: Occupational Interest Types, Gender, Salary, and Skill Level. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 77, 83-94. doi:10.1024/1421-0185/a000206

Abstract

This study aimed at conducting a representative analysis of the Swiss labor market from 1991 to 2014 by applying Holland’s (1997) classification of occupations according to six vocational interest types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional (RIASEC). Results based on data of the Swiss Labor Force Survey showed that realistic occupations consistently represented the largest share of jobs over this period, albeit with a declining tendency. Increased numbers of people were employed in social and enterprising types of work. The lowest numbers were found in artistic and investigative occupations. Gender segregation along the six RIASEC occupational types could be found on the Swiss labor market as well, with most men working in realistic, and most women in social, occupations. Further, we observed large salary differences between the six occupational types, even when controlling for required skill level. In line with findings concerning gender pay inequalities, men earned more than women in each RIASEC occupational type in each year. We moreover found that RIASEC occupations differed meaningfully with regard to skill level, and that required skill level increased across all RIASEC occupations over the examined 23-year period.

 

Keywords: Swiss labor market, occupational interest types, RIASEC, gender, salary, skill level

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Work values underlying protean and boundaryless career orientations

Andreas Hirschi

Abessolo, M., Hirschi, A., & Rossier J. (2017). Work values underlying protean and boundaryless career orientations. Career Development International, 22(3), 241-259. doi: 10.1108/CDI-10-2016-0167

Abstract

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the relation among work values and protean and boundaryless career orientations.

Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 238 employees aged 16 to 65 years from the French-speaking region of Switzerland completed two different work values scales as well as protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales. To assess the relationships among these constructs, correlations, multiple regression, and exploratory factorial analysis techniques were used.

Findings – Results suggested that protean and boundaryless career orientations were significantly positively related to intrinsic, social, and status work values. A boundaryless- organizational mobility orientation was significantly negatively associated with extrinsic/material work values.

Research limitations/implications – Results have important implications for understanding which work values are typically endorsed by people with a protean or a boundaryless career orientation.

Originality/value – The present study contributes to the understanding of protean and boundaryless careers by clarifying the relationships among these career orientations and work values.

Keywords: Work values, Protean careers, Boundaryless careers, Career orientations, Employees

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Laufbahnentwicklung und -förderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern

Andreas Hirschi

Nagy, N., & Hirschi, A. (2017). Laufbahnentwicklung und -förderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern [Career development and promotion of older workers]. In S. Kauffeld & D. Spurk (Hrsg.), Handbuch Karriere und Laufbahnmanagement (pp. 1-21). Heidelberg: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-45855-6_32-1

Abstract

Späte Laufbahnentwicklung ist ein Thema von immer größerer Relevanz, da die Lebenserwartung in den westlichen Ländern steigt und durch die zunehmende Unsicherheit der verfügbaren Altersvorsorge viele Menschen länger arbeiten müssen (Riphahn et al. 2006). Des Weiteren ist es auch unabhängig von der finanziellen Situation aus mannigfaltigen Gründen mit Vorteilen verbunden, auch im höheren Lebensalter aktiv zu bleiben. Eine nachhaltige und zu den Fähigkei- ten und Bedürfnissen des Individuums passende Arbeitsumgebung kann nicht nur die physischen und kognitiven Fertigkeiten und Fähigkeiten instand halten (Salt- house 2006), sondern auch soziale und identitätsbildende Funktionen erfüllen (Bal et al. 2015). Des Weiteren sind auch Unternehmen in Zukunft vermehrt auf motivierte und produktive ältere Mitarbeiter angewiesen, um den Bedarf an erfahrenem und fachlich versiertem Personal zu decken (Van der Heijden et al. 2008). Das vorliegende Buchkapitel bietet einen umfassenden Einblick in die breit gefächerten Themen der Laufbahnentwicklung und Karriereförderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern. Als Erstes werden die späten Laufbahnphasen vorgestellt und typische Entwicklungsaufgaben in diesem Lebensabschnitt aufgezeigt. Danach wird die späte Laufbahn aus zwei unterschiedlichen Perspektiven beleuchtet: aus der Perspektive der Organisation, welche ältere Arbeitnehmer beschäftigt sowie auch aus der Perspektive der Arbeitnehmer selbst, bevor ab- schließend weitere nötige Forschung zu diesem Thema identifiziert wird.

Karriere- und Talentmanagement in Unternehmen

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2017). Karriere- und Talentmanagement in Unternehmen. In S. Kauffeld & D. Spurk (Hrsg.), Handbuch Karriere und Laufbahnmanagement (pp. 1-18).  Heidelberg: Springer. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-45855-6_22-1

Abstract

Das Kapitel bietet einen Überblick über das Karrieremanagement in Unternehmen und geht dabei auf die Wichtigkeit von flexiblen Karrieresystemen ein, die eine Vielzahl an individuellen Karrierezielen abbilden können. Darüber hinaus wird das Talentmanagement als eine Form des Karrieremanagements kritisch diskutiert. Schließlich wird die Nachfolgeplanung als Mittel im Karriere- und Talentmanagement vorgestellt.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (in press). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice. Career Development Quarterly.

Abstract

The accelerating digitization and automation of work, known as the fourth industrial revolution, will have an enormous impact on individuals’ career experiences. Yet the academic literature in vocational psychology and careers research has been remarkably silent on this trend so far. This paper summarizes some of the most important issues of the fourth industrial revolution a they pertain to career development. It then critically reviews how current models and frameworks of career development are suitable for addressing these emerging issues. Opportunities for future career development research and practice are outlined.

Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships.

Andreas Hirschi

Abessolo, M., Rossier, J., & Hirschi. A. (2017). Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(1556). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01556.

Abstract

In today’s dynamic and uncertain career context, values play an important role for career choice and lifelong career self-management. Values are desirable goals that are sought by individuals to satisfy their needs and are important for understanding career orientations in terms of protean and boundaryless career orientations and career anchors. However, how career orientations or career anchors fit into a well-established and supported model and into the structure of basic human values remains an important and under-investigated question. The aim of this study was to use Schwartz’s model of structural values to empirically explore the relationships and structural correspondences among basic values, career orientations, and career anchors. A heterogeneous sample of 238 employees from French-speaking Switzerland (Mage = 35.60, SD = 13.03) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ5X), the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes Scales (PCAS, BCAS), and the Career Orientation Inventory (COI) via an anonymous and confidential survey questionnaire. The results showed that it was possible to meaningfully position both career orientations and career anchors in Schwartz’s values structure. The protean and boundaryless career orientations were positively related to Schwartz’s basic values that emphasized openness to change and career anchors and meaningfully followed the motivational continuum of these basic values. Overall, the overlap among the basic values, career orientations, and career anchors appeared relatively important, suggesting that these basic values, orientations and anchors should be considered simultaneously to understand and address the factors and processes underlying individuals’ career choices and paths.

Assessing Key Predictors of Career Success: Development and Validation of the Career Resources Questionnaire

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Nagy, N., Baumeler, F., Johnston, C., & Spurk, D. (in press). Assessing Key Predictors of Career Success: Development and Validation of the Career Resources Questionnaire. Journal of Career Assessment.

Abstract

Identifying predictors of career success is one of the most considered topics in career research and practice. However, the existing literature suggests a vast array of potential predictors that cannot be economically measured. This significantly limits research and practice. To address this issue, we have integrated theoretical and meta-analytic research to propose an integrative framework of career resources, including human capital, environmental, motivational, and career management behavior resources represented by 13 distinct factors. In a multi-step process, we have developed the Career Resources Questionnaire (CRQ) to assess these factors in workers and college students. In two studies encompassing 873 workers and 691 students, we have confirmed reliability and factor structure, convergent validity with existing scales, and criterion validity with indicators of subjective and objective career success. The developed measure can provide researchers and practitioners with a reliable, concise, and comprehensive measure to assess key predictors of career success.

Laufbahnmanagement von jungen Arbeitnehmenden [Career management of young employees]

Andreas Hirschi

Baumeler, F, & Hirschi, A. (2017). Laufbahnmanagement von jungen Arbeitnehmenden [Career management of young employees]. In S. Kauffeld & D. Spurk (Hrsg.), Handbuch Laufbahnmanagement und Karriereplanung. Heidelberg: Springer. 


Zusammenfassung 

Organisationale Sozialisation, Weiterentwicklung von eigenen Kompetenzen, Verfolgen von Laufbahnzielen sowie die Integration von verschiedenen Lebensbereichen sind zentrale Herausforderungen für junge Arbeitnehmende in der frühen Laufbahnphase. Deren erfolgreiche Bewältigung trägt wesentlich zur persönlichen Laufbahnentwicklung und dem Erfolg von Organisationen bei. Dieses Kapitel beschreibt die Anforderungen für junge Arbeitnehmende sowie Bewältigungsmöglichkeiten für das Individuum und die Organisation. Ein Ausblick für Forschung und Praxis des Laufbahnmanagements der frühen Laufbahnphase sowie ein Fazit bilden den Abschluss des Kapitels. 

Konzepte zur Förderung von Laufbahnentwicklung im 21. Jahrhundert [Concepts for promoting career development in the 21st century]

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2015). Konzepte zur Förderung von Laufbahnentwicklung im 21. Jahrhundert [Concepts for promoting career development in the 21st century]. In Zihlmann, R. (Hrsg.), Berufswahl in Theorie und Praxis (4. Auflage). Bern: SDBB. 


Zusammenfassung

Laufbahnen haben sich in den letzten vier Jahrzehnten durch Fortschritte in der Technologie, zunehmende Internationalisierung, mehr Diversität in der Belegschaft von Unternehmen, neue Arbeitsformen, Veränderungen in Organisationsstrukturen und veränderte Einstellungen zur Arbeitsrolle massgeblich geändert. Dieses Kapitel bietet einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Trends, die aktuelle Arbeit und Laufbahnen beeinflussen. Es werden zudem Faktoren vorgestellt, die in der heutigen Arbeitswelt zentral sind, um eine Laufbahn selbstbestimmt und erfolgreich gestalten zu können.

Karriere- und Talentmanagement in Unternehmen [Career and talent management in organizations]

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2017). Karriere- und Talentmanagement in Unternehmen [Career and talent management in organizations]. In S. Kauffeld & D. Spurk (Hrsg.), Handbuch Laufbahnmanagement und Karriereplanung. Heidelberg: Springer.


Zusammenfassung

Das Kapitel bietet einen Überblick über das Karrieremanagement in Unternehmen und geht dabei auf die Wichtigkeit von flexiblen Karrieresystemen ein, die eine Vielzahl an individuellen Karrierezielen abbilden können. Darüber hinaus wird das Talentmanagement als eine Form des Karrieremanagements kritisch diskutiert. Schließlich wird die Nachfolgeplanung als Mittel im Karriere- und Talentmanagement vorgestellt. 

Berufs- und Laufbahnberatung [Career counseling]

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2017). Berufs- und Laufbahnberatung [Career counseling]. In S. Kauffeld & D. Spurk (Hrsg.), Handbuch Laufbahnmanagement und Karriereplanung. Heidelberg: Springer.


Zusammenfassung

Das Kapitel definiert Berufs- und Laufbahnberatung als Anwendungsbereich der Psychologie und beschreibt dessen zentrale Merkmale. Es werden Modelle für den Prozess der Berufs- und Laufbahnberatung beschrieben sowie dafür notwendige Kernkompetenzen aufgezeigt, wobei sowohl auf allgemeine Mikrokompetenzen als auch auf ein europäisches Kompetenzmodell eingegangen wird. Schließlich wird die Forschung zur Wirksamkeit von Interventionen in der Berufs- und Laufbahnberatung beschrieben.  

Evaluation von Laufbahnberatung : Was wir wissen – und was wir wissen sollten [Evaluation of career counseling : What we know – and what we should know]

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2016). Evaluation von Laufbahnberatung : Was wir wissen – und was wir wissen sollten [Evaluation of career counseling : What we know – and what we should know]. Panorama, 3, 10-11.


Abstract

Interventionen in der Berufs-, Studien- und Laufbahnberatung haben einen positiven Effekt auf verschiedene Aspekte der beruflichen Entwicklung von Klienten – das ist durch internationale Forschung gut belegt. Für die Praxis der Evaluation ergeben sich neue Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten