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Publications

A complete list of all my publications with free access

Whole-Life Career Management: A Counseling Intervention Framework

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (in press). Whole-Life Career Management: A Counseling Intervention Framework. Career Development Quarterly.

Abstract

It is widely recognized that career management and counseling require a consideration of work and nonwork roles. I present a career counseling intervention framework to help clients self-direct their careers and attain work-nonwork balance. Based on an action-regulation approach, the framework consists of four phases: (1) Clarifying goals across work and nonwork roles; (2) mapping resources and barriers related to goal attainment; (3) developing action strategies for goal attainment; and (4) monitoring and adapting goal pursuit across work and nonwork goals. I outline the theoretical foundations of this framework, provide a case study on how the framework can be applied in individual counseling, and give examples of specific intervention contents. The framework provides a foundation for career counseling practice to assist clients in managing their careers under considerations of nonwork roles. Research can use the framework to gain a better understanding of career self-management from a whole-life perspective.

Keywords: work-nonwork; career counseling; work-life balance; work-family; action regulation

Networking as predictor of work-nonwork enrichment: Mechanisms on the within- and between-person level

Andreas Hirschi

Baumeler, F., Johnston, C. S., Hirschi, A., & Spurk, D. (2018). Networking as predictor of work-nonwork enrichment: Mechanisms on the within- and between-person level. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 109, 166-177. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2018.10.015


A positive work–nonwork interface is an important aspect of successful career development because it is associated with satisfaction, positive health, and positive work outcomes. However, the role of proactive behaviors at work for work–nonwork enrichment mechanisms has thus far not received much attention. Based on the conservation of resource theory (Hobfoll, 1989) and work–family enrichment theory (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006), we investigated the instrumental (i.e., coworker support) and affective (i.e., positive affect at work) enrichment mechanisms facilitated by networking. We conducted a diary study for within-person effects and a longitudinal panel study for between-person effects. Results supported the notion that networking is positively related to coworker support and positive affect at work on both the within- and between-person level. Furthermore, the mediating effect of coworker support for the relation between networking and work–nonwork enrichment on the within-person level was supported. On the between-person level, the mediating effect through positive affect at work was supported. Implications for research and practice concerning the resources gained by networking and the different work–nonwork enrichment mechanisms on the within- and between-person levels are discussed.

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Identity Incongruence and Negotiation in the Transition from Work to Retirement: A Theoretical Model

Andreas Hirschi

Froidevaux, A., Hirschi, A., & Wang, M. (2018). Identity incongruence and negotiation in the transition from work to retirement: A theoretical model. Organizational Psychology Review, 8(4), 228-255. doi:10.1177/2041386619830754


In an aging society, dealing with the disengagement from the work-related identity and the quality of retirement adjustment become major concerns for individuals and organizations. However, the processes through which retirement adjustment can be achieved and upon which conditions this depends are only partially understood, especially regarding identity transition processes. To address this issue, we suggest that identity incongruence, identity transition negotiation, and the variety of high-quality exchange relationships represent key factors that explain the different experiences in retirement adjustment quality. Integrating social identity, self-categorization, identity negotiation, and interpersonal perspectives, we develop a theoretical model with 12 propositions highlighting the dynamic changes in identity incongruence across time and the possible co-existence of the work-related identity and the retiree-identity. We also discuss the potential boundary conditions of the model, outline directions for future research, and suggest practical implications at the individual and organizational levels.

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Predictors of a Protean Career Orientation and Vocational Training Enrollment in the Post-School Transition

Andreas Hirschi

Steiner, R. S., Hirschi, A., & Wang, M. (2019). Predictors of a protean career orientation and vocational training enrollment in the post-school transition. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 112, 216-228. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2019.03.002


The post-school transition is a critical transition for adolescents and understanding when and how it results in beneficial outcomes is a pressing issue. We integrate career construction theory and social cognitive career theory and investigate a sequential model of predictors and outcomes at various stages in the post-school transition process. We focus on a protean career orientation as an important subjective transition outcome and whether adolescents continue with high school or vocational education and training (VET) as an important objective transition outcome. We propose that personal and contextual socio-cognitive factors during school (i.e., occupational self-efficacy beliefs and perceived career barriers) relate to the transition outcomes indirectly through their effects on vocational identity clarity. We tested our hypotheses among a sample of 819 Swiss adolescents, based on a time- lagged study with three waves over a period of three years. Results of structural equation modeling showed that occupational self-efficacy beliefs positively, and perceived career barriers negatively related to vocational identity clarity. A clear vocational identity in turn predicted a higher probability of VET enrollment compared to high school enrollment after school. Unexpectedly, a clearer vocational identity related to a weaker protean career orientation. Implications for post-school transition research and the protean career literature are discussed.

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Do we act as old as we feel? An examination of subjective age and job crafting behaviour of late career employees

Andreas Hirschi

Nagy, N., Johnston, C. S., & Hirschi, A. (2019). Do we act as old as we feel? An examination of subjective age and job crafting behaviour of late career employees. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(3), 373-383. doi:10.1080/1359432x.2019.1584183


Ageing research calls for a focus on the mechanisms that can explain effects of ageing beyond the purely chronologic marker of age. To address this issue, the present study focuses on subjective age as a holistic construct that is related to various developmental and motivational processes and allows deeper insights into the interindividual variability of the ageing experience in older workers. Specifically, the current study examines on a sample of N = 485 late career employees (mean age 54 years),if subjective age is related to job crafting behaviours of older workers and whether job crafting is related to higher levels of work meaningfulness in late career. Results indicate that subjective age is significantly negatively related to job crafting behaviour over and above the effect of chronological age, self-rated health and workplace autonomy. Job crafting, in turn, significantly predicted work meaningfulness, above the effect of workplace autonomy. In sum, our study provides evidence for the utility of psychological representations of ageing to understand job crafting at work for an increasingly important segment of the working population.

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Calling as a double-edged sword for work-nonwork enrichment and conflict among older workers

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Keller, A. C., & Spurk, D. (2019). Calling as a double-edged sword for work-nonwork enrichment and conflict among older workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2019.02.004


Having a calling has been linked to various positive outcomes, but the potential negative effects of having a calling have not yet received comparable attention. Moreover, research thus far has neglected to examine how callings affect the work–nonwork interface. Based on the work–home resources model, and work–family enrichment theory, we presumed that having a calling can increase as well as deplete personal resources at work, which, in turn, promote work–nonwork enrichment and conflict among older workers. We investigated these assumptions among 599 employees, aged between 50 and 60 years, by examining within-individual changes in presence of calling, positive affect at work, workaholism, work–nonwork enrichment, and work–nonwork conflict over a period of one year, with two measurement points. Results indicated that an increase in the presence of a calling was positively related to increased levels of positive affect at work, which, in turn, was positively related to increased work–nonwork enrichment. However, an increase in the presence of a calling was also positively related to increased workaholism, which was positively related to increased work–nonwork conflict. The findings suggest that having a calling is meaningfully related to the work–nonwork interface among older workers in both positive and negative ways. 

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Karriere-Ressourcen messen: Validierung der deutschsprachigen Version des Karriere-Ressourcen Fragebogens Assessing Career Resources: Validation of the German-Language Career Resources Questionnaire

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Hänggli, M., Nagy, N., Baumeler, F., Johnston, C., & Spurk, D. (2019). Karriere-Ressourcen messen. Diagnostica. doi:10.1026/0012-1924/a000219


Die existierende Literatur schlägt eine Vielzahl von potentiellen Prädiktoren für Karriereerfolg vor, welche in ihrer Menge kaum auf eine ökonomische Art erhoben werden können. Um diesen Umstand anzugehen, haben Hirschi, Nagy, Baumeler, Johnston und Spurk (2018) den Karriere-Ressourcen Fragebogen (CRQ; Career Resources Questionnaire) entwickelt und in einer englischsprachigen Version validiert. Basierend auf einer Integration von theoretischer und metaanalytischer Forschung misst der Fragebogen 13 distinkte Faktoren, welche 4 übergeordnete Dimensionen repräsentieren: Wissen und KompetenzenMotivationUmfeldund Aktivitätenbezüglich Karriere. In der vorliegenden Studie wird eine Validierung der deutschsprachigen Version mittels N= 1 666 Personen (Studierende und Berufstätige) vorgenommen. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen die Reliabilität sowie die Faktorstruktur des Fragebogens. Mittels Relative-Weight-Analysen konnte zudem die Wichtigkeit von verschiedenen Faktoren für unterschiedliche Arten von Karriereerfolg gezeigt werden. Das Messinstrument bietet Forschenden und Praktizierenden eine ökonomische, reliable und valide Möglichkeit, um Schlüsselfaktoren für Karriereerfolg zu erfassen.

  

The existing literature proposes a large numer of potential predictors of career success which makes it difficult to measure such facilitative factors in a economic way. In order to address this challenge, Hirschi, Nagy, Baumeler, Johnston, and Spurk (2018) have developed and evaulated the Career Resources Questionnaire (CRQ). The CRQ measures 13 factors, represented in 4 higher-level dimensions: Knowledge and Skills, Motivation, Environment, and Activities. In this paper, we aim to validate the German version of the CRQ among N = 1 666 employees and students. The results support the reliability and factor structure and support concurrent and criterion validity regarding similar measures and different indicators of objective and subjective career success. Moreover, relative-weight analyses show that different factors are differently related to various types of career success. We conclude that the German-language CRQ provides an economic, reliable, and efficient tool to assess key predictors of career success.

 

Vision zur Zukunft der Berufs-, Studien-, und Laufbahnberatung

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2018). Berufs-, Studien- und Laufbahnberatung [Bericht im Auftrag des Staatssekretariats für Bildung, Forschung und Innovation SBF im Rahmen des Projekts «Berufsbildung 2030 – Vision und Strategische Leitlinien»]. Bern: SBFI. ISSN 2296-3847


Der Bericht nimmt eine umfassende Analyse der aktuellen und zukünftigen Herausforderungen und Chancen der Berufs-, Studien-, und Laufbahnberatung (BSLB) vor und entwirft eine Vision, wie die BSLB ihre zunehmende Systemrelevanz optimal wahrnehmen kann.

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Lifespan Perspectives on Careers and Career Development

Andreas Hirschi

Nagy, N., Froidevaux, A., & Hirschi, A. (2018). Lifespan perspectives on careers and career development In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work Across the Lifespan (Vol. 1): Elsevier.


Abstract

This chapter intends to contribute to a better understanding of career development over the lifespan by examining individual and contextual factors contributing to life-long career development. Considering manifold changes in the work environment as well as throughout an individual’s career, we review classic theories of career development in the beginning of this chapter. We then describe changes in today’s careers, and depict modern career theories, such as the protean or the boundaryless career. Subsequently, we elaborate on sources of change over the lifespan from an individual perspective: We explain how changes in personality, work values, or goal setting influence career development. From an organizational perspective, we describe how changes in the psychological contract or various age norms may influence the career development of employees. In the last part of this chapter, we outline central career developmental issues for individuals over the lifespan and point out recommendations for organizations in order to help promote meaningful, fulfilling, and sustainable career development over the lifespan. 

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Achieving work-family balance: An action regulation model

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Shockley, K. M., & Zacher, H. (2019). Achieving work-family balance: An action regulation model. Academy of Management Review, 44(1), 150-171. doi:10.5465/amr.2016.0409


Abstract

Work and family are highly intertwined for many individuals. Despite this, individual-level strategies for achieving effectiveness and satisfaction across work and family roles have not received sufficient attention. We address this issue by conceptualizing work-family balance from an action regulation perspective as the successful joint pursuit of work and family goals. Building on insights from the work-family literature, action regulation theory, and multiple goals research, we propose a theoretical model that explains how people can jointly attain work and family goals by using four action strategies (i.e., allocating resources, changing resources and barriers, sequencing goals, and revising goals). We address the conditions under which each strategy is used, depending on the malleability of resources and barriers for goal attainment, time to deadline of goals, as well as feedback and monitoring of progress across work and family goals. Our model offers new insights and research implications regarding work-family balance and helps develop practical interventions that result in improved management of the work-family interface.

 

Keywords: action regulation; multiple goals; work-family balance 

Living one's calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Keller, A. & Spurk D. (2018). Living one’s calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106, 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2017.12.001

Abstract

Recent research on calling has pointed to the important distinction between having and living a calling in order to explain the positive effects of callings on well-being. However, how the link between having a calling and living a calling might be explained has only been partially addressed. In the present study, we focused on the neglected role of workplace characteristics as key factors in this regard. In a sample of 232 working adults in Germany, we established that presence of calling and living a calling were significantly related to job resources in terms of decision-making autonomy, task significance, and social support at work. Moreover, presence of calling and living a calling positively related to level of education, leadership position, and salary. Testing indirect effects with bootstrapping analyses, we found that job resources, specifically decision-making autonomy and task significance, partially mediated the relation of presence of calling with living a calling, while controlling for educational level and leadership position. The results support the idea that living a calling is not just about finding work that fits one’s calling. People who have a calling are also more likely to live their calling by working in jobs with more job resources.

 

Keywords: Presence of calling; living a calling; work characteristics; job resources

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The perceived influence of role models and early career development in native and migrant youth

Andreas Hirschi

Valero, D., Keller, A. C., & Hirschi, A. (2019). The Perceived Influence of Role Models and Early Career Development in Native and Migrant Youth. Journal of Career Development, 46(3), 265-279. doi:10.1177/0894845318763905

Abstract

Role models provide youth with valuable information on how to pursue their career goals. However, whether the presence of role models is related to career development beyond social support has not been sufficiently addressed. We investigated how perceived role model influence and social support were related to goal engagement among 191 students and to work engagement among 500 apprentices, and whether these effects were mediated by occupational self-efficacy. We further examined differences between native and migrant youth. Data were analyzed using multi-group structural equation modeling. Our results suggested that engagement was related to role model influence beyond its relationship with social support among students and apprentices. However, this relationship was not found for migrant students. There were no significant indirect effects of role model influence on engagement via self-efficacy among students and apprentices. Our results suggest that role models should be acknowledged as a distinct facilitator of adolescents’ work-related engagement.

Keywords: role models, engagement, social support, migrant youth

A psychological description of the Swiss labor market from 1991 to 2014: Occupational interest types, gender, salary, and skill level

Andreas Hirschi

Ghetta, A., Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., & Rossier, J. (2018). A Psychological Description of the Swiss Labor Market from 1991 to 2014: Occupational Interest Types, Gender, Salary, and Skill Level. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 77, 83-94. doi:10.1024/1421-0185/a000206

Abstract

This study aimed at conducting a representative analysis of the Swiss labor market from 1991 to 2014 by applying Holland’s (1997) classification of occupations according to six vocational interest types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional (RIASEC). Results based on data of the Swiss Labor Force Survey showed that realistic occupations consistently represented the largest share of jobs over this period, albeit with a declining tendency. Increased numbers of people were employed in social and enterprising types of work. The lowest numbers were found in artistic and investigative occupations. Gender segregation along the six RIASEC occupational types could be found on the Swiss labor market as well, with most men working in realistic, and most women in social, occupations. Further, we observed large salary differences between the six occupational types, even when controlling for required skill level. In line with findings concerning gender pay inequalities, men earned more than women in each RIASEC occupational type in each year. We moreover found that RIASEC occupations differed meaningfully with regard to skill level, and that required skill level increased across all RIASEC occupations over the examined 23-year period.

 

Keywords: Swiss labor market, occupational interest types, RIASEC, gender, salary, skill level

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Work values underlying protean and boundaryless career orientations

Andreas Hirschi

Abessolo, M., Hirschi, A., & Rossier J. (2017). Work values underlying protean and boundaryless career orientations. Career Development International, 22(3), 241-259. doi: 10.1108/CDI-10-2016-0167

Abstract

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the relation among work values and protean and boundaryless career orientations.

Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 238 employees aged 16 to 65 years from the French-speaking region of Switzerland completed two different work values scales as well as protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales. To assess the relationships among these constructs, correlations, multiple regression, and exploratory factorial analysis techniques were used.

Findings – Results suggested that protean and boundaryless career orientations were significantly positively related to intrinsic, social, and status work values. A boundaryless- organizational mobility orientation was significantly negatively associated with extrinsic/material work values.

Research limitations/implications – Results have important implications for understanding which work values are typically endorsed by people with a protean or a boundaryless career orientation.

Originality/value – The present study contributes to the understanding of protean and boundaryless careers by clarifying the relationships among these career orientations and work values.

Keywords: Work values, Protean careers, Boundaryless careers, Career orientations, Employees

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Laufbahnentwicklung und -förderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern

Andreas Hirschi

Nagy, N., & Hirschi, A. (2017). Laufbahnentwicklung und -förderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern [Career development and promotion of older workers]. In S. Kauffeld & D. Spurk (Hrsg.), Handbuch Karriere und Laufbahnmanagement (pp. 1-21). Heidelberg: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-45855-6_32-1

Abstract

Späte Laufbahnentwicklung ist ein Thema von immer größerer Relevanz, da die Lebenserwartung in den westlichen Ländern steigt und durch die zunehmende Unsicherheit der verfügbaren Altersvorsorge viele Menschen länger arbeiten müssen (Riphahn et al. 2006). Des Weiteren ist es auch unabhängig von der finanziellen Situation aus mannigfaltigen Gründen mit Vorteilen verbunden, auch im höheren Lebensalter aktiv zu bleiben. Eine nachhaltige und zu den Fähigkei- ten und Bedürfnissen des Individuums passende Arbeitsumgebung kann nicht nur die physischen und kognitiven Fertigkeiten und Fähigkeiten instand halten (Salt- house 2006), sondern auch soziale und identitätsbildende Funktionen erfüllen (Bal et al. 2015). Des Weiteren sind auch Unternehmen in Zukunft vermehrt auf motivierte und produktive ältere Mitarbeiter angewiesen, um den Bedarf an erfahrenem und fachlich versiertem Personal zu decken (Van der Heijden et al. 2008). Das vorliegende Buchkapitel bietet einen umfassenden Einblick in die breit gefächerten Themen der Laufbahnentwicklung und Karriereförderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern. Als Erstes werden die späten Laufbahnphasen vorgestellt und typische Entwicklungsaufgaben in diesem Lebensabschnitt aufgezeigt. Danach wird die späte Laufbahn aus zwei unterschiedlichen Perspektiven beleuchtet: aus der Perspektive der Organisation, welche ältere Arbeitnehmer beschäftigt sowie auch aus der Perspektive der Arbeitnehmer selbst, bevor ab- schließend weitere nötige Forschung zu diesem Thema identifiziert wird.

Karriere- und Talentmanagement in Unternehmen

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2017). Karriere- und Talentmanagement in Unternehmen. In S. Kauffeld & D. Spurk (Hrsg.), Handbuch Karriere und Laufbahnmanagement (pp. 1-18).  Heidelberg: Springer. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-45855-6_22-1

Abstract

Das Kapitel bietet einen Überblick über das Karrieremanagement in Unternehmen und geht dabei auf die Wichtigkeit von flexiblen Karrieresystemen ein, die eine Vielzahl an individuellen Karrierezielen abbilden können. Darüber hinaus wird das Talentmanagement als eine Form des Karrieremanagements kritisch diskutiert. Schließlich wird die Nachfolgeplanung als Mittel im Karriere- und Talentmanagement vorgestellt.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2018). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice. Career Development Quarterly, 66, 192-204. doi:10.1002/cdq.12142

Abstract

The accelerating digitization and automation of work, known as the fourth industrial revolution, will have an enormous impact on individuals’ career experiences. Yet the academic literature in vocational psychology and careers research has been remarkably silent on this trend so far. This paper summarizes some of the most important issues of the fourth industrial revolution a they pertain to career development. It then critically reviews how current models and frameworks of career development are suitable for addressing these emerging issues. Opportunities for future career development research and practice are outlined.

Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships.

Andreas Hirschi

Abessolo, M., Rossier, J., & Hirschi. A. (2017). Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(1556). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01556.

Abstract

In today’s dynamic and uncertain career context, values play an important role for career choice and lifelong career self-management. Values are desirable goals that are sought by individuals to satisfy their needs and are important for understanding career orientations in terms of protean and boundaryless career orientations and career anchors. However, how career orientations or career anchors fit into a well-established and supported model and into the structure of basic human values remains an important and under-investigated question. The aim of this study was to use Schwartz’s model of structural values to empirically explore the relationships and structural correspondences among basic values, career orientations, and career anchors. A heterogeneous sample of 238 employees from French-speaking Switzerland (Mage = 35.60, SD = 13.03) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ5X), the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes Scales (PCAS, BCAS), and the Career Orientation Inventory (COI) via an anonymous and confidential survey questionnaire. The results showed that it was possible to meaningfully position both career orientations and career anchors in Schwartz’s values structure. The protean and boundaryless career orientations were positively related to Schwartz’s basic values that emphasized openness to change and career anchors and meaningfully followed the motivational continuum of these basic values. Overall, the overlap among the basic values, career orientations, and career anchors appeared relatively important, suggesting that these basic values, orientations and anchors should be considered simultaneously to understand and address the factors and processes underlying individuals’ career choices and paths.