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Publications

A complete list of all my publications with free access

Filtering by Category: Peer reviewed journals

Karriere-Ressourcen messen: Validierung der deutschsprachigen Version des Karriere-Ressourcen Fragebogens Assessing Career Resources: Validation of the German-Language Career Resources Questionnaire

Andreas Hirschi

Die existierende Literatur schlägt eine Vielzahl von potentiellen Prädiktoren für Karriereerfolg vor, welche in ihrer Menge kaum auf eine ökonomische Art erhoben werden können. Um diesen Umstand anzugehen, haben Hirschi, Nagy, Baumeler, Johnston und Spurk (2018) den Karriere-Ressourcen Fragebogen (CRQ; Career Resources Questionnaire) entwickelt und in einer englischsprachigen Version validiert. Basierend auf einer Integration von theoretischer und metaanalytischer Forschung misst der Fragebogen 13 distinkte Faktoren, welche 4 übergeordnete Dimensionen repräsentieren: Wissen und KompetenzenMotivationUmfeldund Aktivitätenbezüglich Karriere. In der vorliegenden Studie wird eine Validierung der deutschsprachigen Version mittels N= 1 666 Personen (Studierende und Berufstätige) vorgenommen. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen die Reliabilität sowie die Faktorstruktur des Fragebogens. Mittels Relative-Weight-Analysen konnte zudem die Wichtigkeit von verschiedenen Faktoren für unterschiedliche Arten von Karriereerfolg gezeigt werden. Das Messinstrument bietet Forschenden und Praktizierenden eine ökonomische, reliable und valide Möglichkeit, um Schlüsselfaktoren für Karriereerfolg zu erfassen.

  

The existing literature proposes a large numer of potential predictors of career success which makes it difficult to measure such facilitative factors in a economic way. In order to address this challenge, Hirschi, Nagy, Baumeler, Johnston, and Spurk (2018) have developed and evaulated the Career Resources Questionnaire (CRQ). The CRQ measures 13 factors, represented in 4 higher-level dimensions: Knowledge and Skills, Motivation, Environment, and Activities. In this paper, we aim to validate the German version of the CRQ among N = 1 666 employees and students. The results support the reliability and factor structure and support concurrent and criterion validity regarding similar measures and different indicators of objective and subjective career success. Moreover, relative-weight analyses show that different factors are differently related to various types of career success. We conclude that the German-language CRQ provides an economic, reliable, and efficient tool to assess key predictors of career success.

 

Achieving work-family balance: An action regulation model

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Shockley, K. M., & Zacher, H. (in press). Achieving work-family balance: An action regulation model. Academy of Management Review.

Abstract

Work and family are highly intertwined for many individuals. Despite this, individual-level strategies for achieving effectiveness and satisfaction across work and family roles have not received sufficient attention. We address this issue by conceptualizing work-family balance from an action regulation perspective as the successful joint pursuit of work and family goals. Building on insights from the work-family literature, action regulation theory, and multiple goals research, we propose a theoretical model that explains how people can jointly attain work and family goals by using four action strategies (i.e., allocating resources, changing resources and barriers, sequencing goals, and revising goals). We address the conditions under which each strategy is used, depending on the malleability of resources and barriers for goal attainment, time to deadline of goals, as well as feedback and monitoring of progress across work and family goals. Our model offers new insights and research implications regarding work-family balance and helps develop practical interventions that result in improved management of the work-family interface.

 

Keywords: action regulation; multiple goals; work-family balance 

Living one's calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Keller, A. & Spurk D. (2018). Living one’s calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106, 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2017.12.001

Abstract

Recent research on calling has pointed to the important distinction between having and living a calling in order to explain the positive effects of callings on well-being. However, how the link between having a calling and living a calling might be explained has only been partially addressed. In the present study, we focused on the neglected role of workplace characteristics as key factors in this regard. In a sample of 232 working adults in Germany, we established that presence of calling and living a calling were significantly related to job resources in terms of decision-making autonomy, task significance, and social support at work. Moreover, presence of calling and living a calling positively related to level of education, leadership position, and salary. Testing indirect effects with bootstrapping analyses, we found that job resources, specifically decision-making autonomy and task significance, partially mediated the relation of presence of calling with living a calling, while controlling for educational level and leadership position. The results support the idea that living a calling is not just about finding work that fits one’s calling. People who have a calling are also more likely to live their calling by working in jobs with more job resources.

 

Keywords: Presence of calling; living a calling; work characteristics; job resources

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The perceived influence of role models and early career development in native and migrant youth

Andreas Hirschi

Valero, D., Keller, A. & Hirschi, A. (in press). The perceived influence of role models and early career development in native and migrant youth. Journal of Career Development.

Abstract

Role models provide youth with valuable information on how to pursue their career goals. However, whether the presence of role models is related to career development beyond social support has not been sufficiently addressed. We investigated how perceived role model influence and social support were related to goal engagement among 191 students and to work engagement among 500 apprentices, and whether these effects were mediated by occupational self-efficacy. We further examined differences between native and migrant youth. Data were analyzed using multi-group structural equation modeling. Our results suggested that engagement was related to role model influence beyond its relationship with social support among students and apprentices. However, this relationship was not found for migrant students. There were no significant indirect effects of role model influence on engagement via self-efficacy among students and apprentices. Our results suggest that role models should be acknowledged as a distinct facilitator of adolescents’ work-related engagement.

Keywords: role models, engagement, social support, migrant youth

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A psychological description of the Swiss labor market from 1991 to 2014: Occupational interest types, gender, salary, and skill level

Andreas Hirschi

Ghetta, A., Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., & Rossier, J. (2018). A Psychological Description of the Swiss Labor Market from 1991 to 2014: Occupational Interest Types, Gender, Salary, and Skill Level. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 77, 83-94. doi:10.1024/1421-0185/a000206

Abstract

This study aimed at conducting a representative analysis of the Swiss labor market from 1991 to 2014 by applying Holland’s (1997) classification of occupations according to six vocational interest types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional (RIASEC). Results based on data of the Swiss Labor Force Survey showed that realistic occupations consistently represented the largest share of jobs over this period, albeit with a declining tendency. Increased numbers of people were employed in social and enterprising types of work. The lowest numbers were found in artistic and investigative occupations. Gender segregation along the six RIASEC occupational types could be found on the Swiss labor market as well, with most men working in realistic, and most women in social, occupations. Further, we observed large salary differences between the six occupational types, even when controlling for required skill level. In line with findings concerning gender pay inequalities, men earned more than women in each RIASEC occupational type in each year. We moreover found that RIASEC occupations differed meaningfully with regard to skill level, and that required skill level increased across all RIASEC occupations over the examined 23-year period.

 

Keywords: Swiss labor market, occupational interest types, RIASEC, gender, salary, skill level

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Work values underlying protean and boundaryless career orientations

Andreas Hirschi

Abessolo, M., Hirschi, A., & Rossier J. (2017). Work values underlying protean and boundaryless career orientations. Career Development International, 22(3), 241-259. doi: 10.1108/CDI-10-2016-0167

Abstract

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the relation among work values and protean and boundaryless career orientations.

Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 238 employees aged 16 to 65 years from the French-speaking region of Switzerland completed two different work values scales as well as protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales. To assess the relationships among these constructs, correlations, multiple regression, and exploratory factorial analysis techniques were used.

Findings – Results suggested that protean and boundaryless career orientations were significantly positively related to intrinsic, social, and status work values. A boundaryless- organizational mobility orientation was significantly negatively associated with extrinsic/material work values.

Research limitations/implications – Results have important implications for understanding which work values are typically endorsed by people with a protean or a boundaryless career orientation.

Originality/value – The present study contributes to the understanding of protean and boundaryless careers by clarifying the relationships among these career orientations and work values.

Keywords: Work values, Protean careers, Boundaryless careers, Career orientations, Employees

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The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (in press). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice. Career Development Quarterly.

Abstract

The accelerating digitization and automation of work, known as the fourth industrial revolution, will have an enormous impact on individuals’ career experiences. Yet the academic literature in vocational psychology and careers research has been remarkably silent on this trend so far. This paper summarizes some of the most important issues of the fourth industrial revolution a they pertain to career development. It then critically reviews how current models and frameworks of career development are suitable for addressing these emerging issues. Opportunities for future career development research and practice are outlined.

Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships.

Andreas Hirschi

Abessolo, M., Rossier, J., & Hirschi. A. (2017). Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(1556). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01556.

Abstract

In today’s dynamic and uncertain career context, values play an important role for career choice and lifelong career self-management. Values are desirable goals that are sought by individuals to satisfy their needs and are important for understanding career orientations in terms of protean and boundaryless career orientations and career anchors. However, how career orientations or career anchors fit into a well-established and supported model and into the structure of basic human values remains an important and under-investigated question. The aim of this study was to use Schwartz’s model of structural values to empirically explore the relationships and structural correspondences among basic values, career orientations, and career anchors. A heterogeneous sample of 238 employees from French-speaking Switzerland (Mage = 35.60, SD = 13.03) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ5X), the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes Scales (PCAS, BCAS), and the Career Orientation Inventory (COI) via an anonymous and confidential survey questionnaire. The results showed that it was possible to meaningfully position both career orientations and career anchors in Schwartz’s values structure. The protean and boundaryless career orientations were positively related to Schwartz’s basic values that emphasized openness to change and career anchors and meaningfully followed the motivational continuum of these basic values. Overall, the overlap among the basic values, career orientations, and career anchors appeared relatively important, suggesting that these basic values, orientations and anchors should be considered simultaneously to understand and address the factors and processes underlying individuals’ career choices and paths.

Assessing Key Predictors of Career Success: Development and Validation of the Career Resources Questionnaire

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Nagy, N., Baumeler, F., Johnston, C., & Spurk, D. (in press). Assessing Key Predictors of Career Success: Development and Validation of the Career Resources Questionnaire. Journal of Career Assessment.

Abstract

Identifying predictors of career success is one of the most considered topics in career research and practice. However, the existing literature suggests a vast array of potential predictors that cannot be economically measured. This significantly limits research and practice. To address this issue, we have integrated theoretical and meta-analytic research to propose an integrative framework of career resources, including human capital, environmental, motivational, and career management behavior resources represented by 13 distinct factors. In a multi-step process, we have developed the Career Resources Questionnaire (CRQ) to assess these factors in workers and college students. In two studies encompassing 873 workers and 691 students, we have confirmed reliability and factor structure, convergent validity with existing scales, and criterion validity with indicators of subjective and objective career success. The developed measure can provide researchers and practitioners with a reliable, concise, and comprehensive measure to assess key predictors of career success.

Protean career orientation, vocational identity, and self-efficacy: An empirical clarification of their relationship

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Jaensch, V., & Herrmann, A. (2017) Protean career orientation, vocational identity, and self-efficacy: An empirical clarification of their relationship. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(2), 208-220.doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2016.1242481.


Abstract

There is a large interest in how people can be more protean in their career development, exhibiting a self-directed striving for personally valued career outcomes. However, existing research on the protean career needs to better address issues of antecedents and outcomes as well as unique effects of a protean career orientation (PCO). We present two studies investigating how PCO is related to vocational identity clarity and occupational self-efficacy. Study 1 reports a one-year, three-wave cross-lagged study among 563 university students and established that PCO preceded changes in identity and self-efficacy – but not the other way around. A six-month longitudinal study of 202 employees, Study 2 showed that identity clarity and self-efficacy mediated the effects of PCO on career satisfaction and proactive career behaviors. PCO only possessed incremental predictive validity regarding proactive career behaviors. However, we could not confirm specific direct or mediated effects of PCO on job satisfaction. These results imply that PCO is closely related to vocational identity clarity and self-efficacy because it enhances these career attitudes. Moreover, identity and self-efficacy mediate some but not all of the effects of PCO on important career outcomes.

Keywords: protean career orientation; vocational identity; occupational self-efficacy; job satisfaction; career satisfaction; proactive career behaviors

All in the name of work? Nonwork orientations as predictors of salary, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., Nagy, N., & Spurk, D. (2016). All in the name of work? Nonwork orientations as predictors of salary, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95–96, 45-57, doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2016.07.006.

Abstract

Career development increasingly demands a successful integration of work and nonwork domains. Based on work-nonwork conflict and enrichment theories, this study explored the relationship between nonwork orientations (i.e., family, personal life, and community) and both objective (i.e., salary) and subjective (i.e., career satisfaction) career success and life satisfaction over a period of six months among a sample of 548 employees from Germany. The results generally support the enrichment perspective. Family orientation showed a positive relationship with career satisfaction. All three nonwork orientations, especially family orientation, were positively related to life satisfaction. We also explored gender and age effects but found no differences in nonwork orientations between young employees aged 25–34 years and older workers aged 50–59 years. Men showed lower levels of personal life orientation than women, but no differences in family or community orientation based on gender were found. We also did not observe gender x age interaction effects. We discuss the study's implications for a whole-life perspective on career development, career success, and well-being.

The future work self and calling: The mediational role of life meaning

Andreas Hirschi

Zhang, C., Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., Wei, J., & Zhang, J. (in press). The future work self and calling: The mediational role of life meaning. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1-15, doi:10.1007/s10902-016-9760-y

 

Abstract

Research on calling prevailingly focuses on the positive effects on well-being and career development. However, explorations of the predictors and emergence of callings are sparse. We tested a model in which clarity about the future work self promotes one’s sense of calling through increased life meaning. We sampled 473 Chinese college students with a three-wave panel design over 1 year. Using time-lagged analysis, we found that the future work self at T1 significantly predicted increased life meaning at T2, which, in turn, significantly predicted increased calling at T3. This indirect effect was significant and supported the hypothesized longitudinal mediation model. The reverse effects of one’s calling as a predictor of self-clarity about one’s future work life or life meaning were not confirmed. Our findings suggest that among Chinese college students, self-clarity about one’s future work life and understanding one’s life meaning are two important steps in the development of one’s calling.

Latent profiles of work motivation in adolescents in relation to work expectations, goal engagement, and changes in work experiences

Andreas Hirschi

Valero, D. & Hirschi, A. (2016). Latent profiles of work motivation in adolescents in relation to work expectations, goal engagement, and changes in work experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 93, 67-80, doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2016.01.003.

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Abstract

Motivation plays a key role in successful entry into working life. Based on a cross-sectional and a one-year longitudinal study, we used a person-centered approach to explore work-related motivation (i.e., autonomous goals, positive affect, and occupational self-efficacy) among 577 students in 8th grade (Study 1) and 949 adolescents in vocational training (Study 2). Based on latent profile analysis, in both studies we identified four groups that were characterized by different levels of overall motivation and one group characterized by low positive affect and mean levels in autonomous goals and self-efficacy. Profiles characterized by high levels of motivation showed the highest levels of positive work expectations and goal engagement and the lowest levels of negative work expectations in Study 1 and the highest levels of person-job fit, work engagement, and job satisfaction in Study 2. Moreover, latent difference score analysis showed that motivational profiles predicted changes in person-job fit and work engagement across one year but not in job satisfaction. The results imply that career counselors should be aware of characteristic motivational patterns of clients that may require specific counseling approaches.

Competitive climate and workaholism: Negative sides of future orientation and calling

Andreas Hirschi

Keller, A., Spurk, D., Baumeler, F., & Hirschi, A. (2016). Competitive climate and workaholism: Negative sides of future orientation and calling. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 122-126, doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.061

Abstract

The perception of a competitive climate at work creates stress, uncertainty, and a desire to outperform colleagues. In this study, we investigated whether a competitive climate is associated with increased workaholism. Furthermore, we assumed that especially employees with a future orientation and a presence of a calling will show more workaholic behavior when a competitive climate is present. Hierarchical regression analyses among 812 employees in Germany confirmed our hypotheses: Competitive climate was positively related with workaholism and was stronger related to workaholism under conditions of high future orientation and high calling. These findings suggest that contextual factors at work and individual factors interact to form workaholism. Our results may be explained by the experience of more uncertainty in competitive work climates for individuals with high future orientation and the presence of a calling. Consequently, these employees may invest more physical and cognitive efforts into their work to cope with the competition.

A new perspective on workaholism: The role of personal and contextual career-related antecedents

Andreas Hirschi

Spurk, D., Hirschi, A., & Kauffeld, S. (in press). A new perspective on workaholism: The role of personal and contextual career-related antecedents. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(2), 747-764. doi: 10.1177/106907271561612751


Abstract

The aim of the present study was to present and test a model assuming that career-related variables might function as antecedents of workaholism—the tendency to work compulsively and excessively. More specifically, based on conservation of resource theory and social identity theory, the study tested whether personal (i.e., career insecurity, extrinsic career goals, and career commitment) and contextual variables (i.e., career barriers and perceived organizational support) are related to workaholism. We tested our assumptions by means of stepwise hierarchical regression analyses within a large sample of N = 685 scientists working in different occupational fields (e.g., social science, arts and humanities, economics, and science, technology, engineering, mathematics) in German research institutes and universities. The results showed that career insecurity, career barriers, career commitment, and extrinsic career goals were positively associated, and perceived organizational support was negatively associated, with workaholism. Furthermore, the set of analyzed career variables showed incremental validity and explained a significant portion of variance in workaholism beyond control variables (i.e., gender, age, work hours, and occupational field) and personality (i.e., extroversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism).

Between- and within-person level motivational precursors associated with career exploration

Andreas Hirschi

Lee, B., Porfeli, E. J., & Hirschi, A. (2016). Between- and within-person level motivational precursors associated with career exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 92, 125-134, doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2015.11.009

Abstract

Career exploration is a critical process for child and adolescent development leading people toward suitable work and developing a vocational identity. The present study examined the role of motivational precursors, namely work valences and personal agency beliefs, in explaining in-breadth and in-depth career exploration. Given the dynamic nature of motivation, we teased apart the between-person differences and within-person variabilities in motivational precursors to examine how they are independently associated with career exploration. Two hundred one high school students comprised the sample and were surveyed three consecutive years. Results revealed that work valences and agency beliefs were associated with career exploration at both the between- and within-person level. Further, when individuals exhibited greater level of agency beliefs and positive valences, they were more likely to exhibit more in-depth exploration one year later. Implications for career guidance are discussed.

The role of mattering as an overlooked key challenge in retirement planning and adjustment

Andreas Hirschi

Froidevaux, A., Hirschi, A. & Wang, M. (2016). The role of mattering as an overlooked key challenge in retirement planning and adjustment. Journal of Vocational Behavior 94, 57-69, doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2016.02.016.50

Abstract

In an aging society, making a successful transition from work to retirement and achieving good quality of retirement adjustment become major concerns for individuals, organizations, and governments. This paper focuses on the particular role of mattering (i.e., individuals' perceptions that they make a difference in the world) as a critical self-concept dimension that may mediate the impact of social interactions on retirement process at two distinct phases. We conducted two studies using time lagged design (with one-year time interval) among older workers 55 years or older (N = 161; Study 1) and retirees (N = 186; Study 2). Study 1 found that mattering mediated the effects of social support at work on life satisfaction but not retirement planning. Study 2 found that mattering mediated the effects of general social support on positive affect but not life satisfaction. Contrary to our expectation, mattering also did not mediate effects of caregiving activities. Overall, our results suggest that mattering represents a critical mechanism that explains some of the positive associations between social support and retirement adjustment quality.

Do bad guys get ahead or fall behind? Relationships of the dark triad of personality with objective and subjective career success

Andreas Hirschi

Spurk, D., Keller, A., Hirschi, A. (2016). Do bad guys get ahead or fall behind? Relationships of the dark triad of personality with objective and subjective career success. Social Psychological and Personality Science (2), 113-121, doi: 10.1177/1948550615609735. 

Abstract

This study analyzed incremental effects of single Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) on objective (i.e., salary and leadership position) and subjective (i.e., career satisfaction) career success. We analyzed 793 early career employees representative of age and education from the private industry sector in Germany. Results from multiple and logistic regressions revealed bright and dark sides of the Dark Triad, depending on the specific Dark Triad trait analyzed. After controlling for other relevant variables (i.e., gender, age, job tenure, organization size, education, and work hours), narcissism was positively related to salary, Machiavellianism was positively related to leadership position and career satisfaction, and psychopathy was negatively related to all analyzed outcomes. These results provide evidence that the Dark Triad plays a role in explaining important career outcomes. Implications for personality and career research are derived.

Persistent career indecision over time: Links with personality, barriers, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction

Andreas Hirschi

Jaensch, V. K., Hirschi, A., & Freund, P. A. (2015). Persistent career indecision over time: Links with personality, barriers, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior,  91, 122-133, doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2015.09.010

The relationships of vocational interest congruence, differentiation, and elevation to career preparedness among university students

Andreas Hirschi

Jaensch, V. K., Hirschi, A., & Spurk, D. (2016). Relationships of Vocational Interest Congruence, Differentiation, and Elevation to Career Preparedness Among University Students. Zeitschrift Fur Arbeits-Und Organisationspsychologie, 60(2), 79-89, doi: 10.1026/0932-4089/a000210.