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Publications

A complete list of all my publications with free access

Filtering by Category: Peer reviewed journals

Networking as predictor of work-nonwork enrichment: Mechanisms on the within- and between-person level

Andreas Hirschi

A positive work–nonwork interface is an important aspect of successful career development because it is associated with satisfaction, positive health, and positive work outcomes. However, the role of proactive behaviors at work for work–nonwork enrichment mechanisms has thus far not received much attention. Based on the conservation of resource theory (Hobfoll, 1989) and work–family enrichment theory (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006), we investigated the instrumental (i.e., coworker support) and affective (i.e., positive affect at work) enrichment mechanisms facilitated by networking. We conducted a diary study for within-person effects and a longitudinal panel study for between-person effects. Results supported the notion that networking is positively related to coworker support and positive affect at work on both the within- and between-person level. Furthermore, the mediating effect of coworker support for the relation between networking and work–nonwork enrichment on the within-person level was supported. On the between-person level, the mediating effect through positive affect at work was supported. Implications for research and practice concerning the resources gained by networking and the different work–nonwork enrichment mechanisms on the within- and between-person levels are discussed.

Identity Incongruence and Negotiation in the Transition from Work to Retirement: A Theoretical Model

Andreas Hirschi

In an aging society, dealing with the disengagement from the work-related identity and the quality of retirement adjustment become major concerns for individuals and organizations. However, the processes through which retirement adjustment can be achieved and upon which conditions this depends are only partially understood, especially regarding identity transition processes. To address this issue, we suggest that identity incongruence, identity transition negotiation, and the variety of high-quality exchange relationships represent key factors that explain the different experiences in retirement adjustment quality. Integrating social identity, self-categorization, identity negotiation, and interpersonal perspectives, we develop a theoretical model with 12 propositions highlighting the dynamic changes in identity incongruence across time and the possible co-existence of the work-related identity and the retiree-identity. We also discuss the potential boundary conditions of the model, outline directions for future research, and suggest practical implications at the individual and organizational levels.

Predictors of a Protean Career Orientation and Vocational Training Enrollment in the Post-School Transition

Andreas Hirschi

The post-school transition is a critical transition for adolescents and understanding when and how it results in beneficial outcomes is a pressing issue. We integrate career construction theory and social cognitive career theory and investigate a sequential model of predictors and outcomes at various stages in the post-school transition process. We focus on a protean career orientation as an important subjective transition outcome and whether adolescents continue with high school or vocational education and training (VET) as an important objective transition outcome. We propose that personal and contextual socio-cognitive factors during school (i.e., occupational self-efficacy beliefs and perceived career barriers) relate to the transition outcomes indirectly through their effects on vocational identity clarity. We tested our hypotheses among a sample of 819 Swiss adolescents, based on a time- lagged study with three waves over a period of three years. Results of structural equation modeling showed that occupational self-efficacy beliefs positively, and perceived career barriers negatively related to vocational identity clarity. A clear vocational identity in turn predicted a higher probability of VET enrollment compared to high school enrollment after school. Unexpectedly, a clearer vocational identity related to a weaker protean career orientation. Implications for post-school transition research and the protean career literature are discussed.

Do we act as old as we feel? An examination of subjective age and job crafting behaviour of late career employees

Andreas Hirschi

Ageing research calls for a focus on the mechanisms that can explain effects of ageing beyond the purely chronologic marker of age. To address this issue, the present study focuses on subjective age as a holistic construct that is related to various developmental and motivational processes and allows deeper insights into the interindividual variability of the ageing experience in older workers. Specifically, the current study examines on a sample of N = 485 late career employees (mean age 54 years),if subjective age is related to job crafting behaviours of older workers and whether job crafting is related to higher levels of work meaningfulness in late career. Results indicate that subjective age is significantly negatively related to job crafting behaviour over and above the effect of chronological age, self-rated health and workplace autonomy. Job crafting, in turn, significantly predicted work meaningfulness, above the effect of workplace autonomy. In sum, our study provides evidence for the utility of psychological representations of ageing to understand job crafting at work for an increasingly important segment of the working population.

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Calling as a double-edged sword for work-nonwork enrichment and conflict among older workers

Andreas Hirschi

Having a calling has been linked to various positive outcomes, but the potential negative effects of having a calling have not yet received comparable attention. Moreover, research thus far has neglected to examine how callings affect the work–nonwork interface. Based on the work–home resources model, and work–family enrichment theory, we presumed that having a calling can increase as well as deplete personal resources at work, which, in turn, promote work–nonwork enrichment and conflict among older workers. We investigated these assumptions among 599 employees, aged between 50 and 60 years, by examining within-individual changes in presence of calling, positive affect at work, workaholism, work–nonwork enrichment, and work–nonwork conflict over a period of one year, with two measurement points. Results indicated that an increase in the presence of a calling was positively related to increased levels of positive affect at work, which, in turn, was positively related to increased work–nonwork enrichment. However, an increase in the presence of a calling was also positively related to increased workaholism, which was positively related to increased work–nonwork conflict. The findings suggest that having a calling is meaningfully related to the work–nonwork interface among older workers in both positive and negative ways. 

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Karriere-Ressourcen messen: Validierung der deutschsprachigen Version des Karriere-Ressourcen Fragebogens Assessing Career Resources: Validation of the German-Language Career Resources Questionnaire

Andreas Hirschi

Die existierende Literatur schlägt eine Vielzahl von potentiellen Prädiktoren für Karriereerfolg vor, welche in ihrer Menge kaum auf eine ökonomische Art erhoben werden können. Um diesen Umstand anzugehen, haben Hirschi, Nagy, Baumeler, Johnston und Spurk (2018) den Karriere-Ressourcen Fragebogen (CRQ; Career Resources Questionnaire) entwickelt und in einer englischsprachigen Version validiert. Basierend auf einer Integration von theoretischer und metaanalytischer Forschung misst der Fragebogen 13 distinkte Faktoren, welche 4 übergeordnete Dimensionen repräsentieren: Wissen und KompetenzenMotivationUmfeldund Aktivitätenbezüglich Karriere. In der vorliegenden Studie wird eine Validierung der deutschsprachigen Version mittels N= 1 666 Personen (Studierende und Berufstätige) vorgenommen. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen die Reliabilität sowie die Faktorstruktur des Fragebogens. Mittels Relative-Weight-Analysen konnte zudem die Wichtigkeit von verschiedenen Faktoren für unterschiedliche Arten von Karriereerfolg gezeigt werden. Das Messinstrument bietet Forschenden und Praktizierenden eine ökonomische, reliable und valide Möglichkeit, um Schlüsselfaktoren für Karriereerfolg zu erfassen.

  

The existing literature proposes a large numer of potential predictors of career success which makes it difficult to measure such facilitative factors in a economic way. In order to address this challenge, Hirschi, Nagy, Baumeler, Johnston, and Spurk (2018) have developed and evaulated the Career Resources Questionnaire (CRQ). The CRQ measures 13 factors, represented in 4 higher-level dimensions: Knowledge and Skills, Motivation, Environment, and Activities. In this paper, we aim to validate the German version of the CRQ among N = 1 666 employees and students. The results support the reliability and factor structure and support concurrent and criterion validity regarding similar measures and different indicators of objective and subjective career success. Moreover, relative-weight analyses show that different factors are differently related to various types of career success. We conclude that the German-language CRQ provides an economic, reliable, and efficient tool to assess key predictors of career success.

 

Achieving work-family balance: An action regulation model

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Shockley, K. M., & Zacher, H. (in press). Achieving work-family balance: An action regulation model. Academy of Management Review.

Abstract

Work and family are highly intertwined for many individuals. Despite this, individual-level strategies for achieving effectiveness and satisfaction across work and family roles have not received sufficient attention. We address this issue by conceptualizing work-family balance from an action regulation perspective as the successful joint pursuit of work and family goals. Building on insights from the work-family literature, action regulation theory, and multiple goals research, we propose a theoretical model that explains how people can jointly attain work and family goals by using four action strategies (i.e., allocating resources, changing resources and barriers, sequencing goals, and revising goals). We address the conditions under which each strategy is used, depending on the malleability of resources and barriers for goal attainment, time to deadline of goals, as well as feedback and monitoring of progress across work and family goals. Our model offers new insights and research implications regarding work-family balance and helps develop practical interventions that result in improved management of the work-family interface.

 

Keywords: action regulation; multiple goals; work-family balance 

Living one's calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Keller, A. & Spurk D. (2018). Living one’s calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106, 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2017.12.001

Abstract

Recent research on calling has pointed to the important distinction between having and living a calling in order to explain the positive effects of callings on well-being. However, how the link between having a calling and living a calling might be explained has only been partially addressed. In the present study, we focused on the neglected role of workplace characteristics as key factors in this regard. In a sample of 232 working adults in Germany, we established that presence of calling and living a calling were significantly related to job resources in terms of decision-making autonomy, task significance, and social support at work. Moreover, presence of calling and living a calling positively related to level of education, leadership position, and salary. Testing indirect effects with bootstrapping analyses, we found that job resources, specifically decision-making autonomy and task significance, partially mediated the relation of presence of calling with living a calling, while controlling for educational level and leadership position. The results support the idea that living a calling is not just about finding work that fits one’s calling. People who have a calling are also more likely to live their calling by working in jobs with more job resources.

 

Keywords: Presence of calling; living a calling; work characteristics; job resources

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The perceived influence of role models and early career development in native and migrant youth

Andreas Hirschi

Valero, D., Keller, A. & Hirschi, A. (in press). The perceived influence of role models and early career development in native and migrant youth. Journal of Career Development.

Abstract

Role models provide youth with valuable information on how to pursue their career goals. However, whether the presence of role models is related to career development beyond social support has not been sufficiently addressed. We investigated how perceived role model influence and social support were related to goal engagement among 191 students and to work engagement among 500 apprentices, and whether these effects were mediated by occupational self-efficacy. We further examined differences between native and migrant youth. Data were analyzed using multi-group structural equation modeling. Our results suggested that engagement was related to role model influence beyond its relationship with social support among students and apprentices. However, this relationship was not found for migrant students. There were no significant indirect effects of role model influence on engagement via self-efficacy among students and apprentices. Our results suggest that role models should be acknowledged as a distinct facilitator of adolescents’ work-related engagement.

Keywords: role models, engagement, social support, migrant youth

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A psychological description of the Swiss labor market from 1991 to 2014: Occupational interest types, gender, salary, and skill level

Andreas Hirschi

Ghetta, A., Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., & Rossier, J. (2018). A Psychological Description of the Swiss Labor Market from 1991 to 2014: Occupational Interest Types, Gender, Salary, and Skill Level. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 77, 83-94. doi:10.1024/1421-0185/a000206

Abstract

This study aimed at conducting a representative analysis of the Swiss labor market from 1991 to 2014 by applying Holland’s (1997) classification of occupations according to six vocational interest types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional (RIASEC). Results based on data of the Swiss Labor Force Survey showed that realistic occupations consistently represented the largest share of jobs over this period, albeit with a declining tendency. Increased numbers of people were employed in social and enterprising types of work. The lowest numbers were found in artistic and investigative occupations. Gender segregation along the six RIASEC occupational types could be found on the Swiss labor market as well, with most men working in realistic, and most women in social, occupations. Further, we observed large salary differences between the six occupational types, even when controlling for required skill level. In line with findings concerning gender pay inequalities, men earned more than women in each RIASEC occupational type in each year. We moreover found that RIASEC occupations differed meaningfully with regard to skill level, and that required skill level increased across all RIASEC occupations over the examined 23-year period.

 

Keywords: Swiss labor market, occupational interest types, RIASEC, gender, salary, skill level

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Work values underlying protean and boundaryless career orientations

Andreas Hirschi

Abessolo, M., Hirschi, A., & Rossier J. (2017). Work values underlying protean and boundaryless career orientations. Career Development International, 22(3), 241-259. doi: 10.1108/CDI-10-2016-0167

Abstract

Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the relation among work values and protean and boundaryless career orientations.

Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 238 employees aged 16 to 65 years from the French-speaking region of Switzerland completed two different work values scales as well as protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales. To assess the relationships among these constructs, correlations, multiple regression, and exploratory factorial analysis techniques were used.

Findings – Results suggested that protean and boundaryless career orientations were significantly positively related to intrinsic, social, and status work values. A boundaryless- organizational mobility orientation was significantly negatively associated with extrinsic/material work values.

Research limitations/implications – Results have important implications for understanding which work values are typically endorsed by people with a protean or a boundaryless career orientation.

Originality/value – The present study contributes to the understanding of protean and boundaryless careers by clarifying the relationships among these career orientations and work values.

Keywords: Work values, Protean careers, Boundaryless careers, Career orientations, Employees

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The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2018). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice. Career Development Quarterly, 66, 192-204. doi:10.1002/cdq.12142

Abstract

The accelerating digitization and automation of work, known as the fourth industrial revolution, will have an enormous impact on individuals’ career experiences. Yet the academic literature in vocational psychology and careers research has been remarkably silent on this trend so far. This paper summarizes some of the most important issues of the fourth industrial revolution a they pertain to career development. It then critically reviews how current models and frameworks of career development are suitable for addressing these emerging issues. Opportunities for future career development research and practice are outlined.

Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships.

Andreas Hirschi

Abessolo, M., Rossier, J., & Hirschi. A. (2017). Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(1556). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01556.

Abstract

In today’s dynamic and uncertain career context, values play an important role for career choice and lifelong career self-management. Values are desirable goals that are sought by individuals to satisfy their needs and are important for understanding career orientations in terms of protean and boundaryless career orientations and career anchors. However, how career orientations or career anchors fit into a well-established and supported model and into the structure of basic human values remains an important and under-investigated question. The aim of this study was to use Schwartz’s model of structural values to empirically explore the relationships and structural correspondences among basic values, career orientations, and career anchors. A heterogeneous sample of 238 employees from French-speaking Switzerland (Mage = 35.60, SD = 13.03) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ5X), the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes Scales (PCAS, BCAS), and the Career Orientation Inventory (COI) via an anonymous and confidential survey questionnaire. The results showed that it was possible to meaningfully position both career orientations and career anchors in Schwartz’s values structure. The protean and boundaryless career orientations were positively related to Schwartz’s basic values that emphasized openness to change and career anchors and meaningfully followed the motivational continuum of these basic values. Overall, the overlap among the basic values, career orientations, and career anchors appeared relatively important, suggesting that these basic values, orientations and anchors should be considered simultaneously to understand and address the factors and processes underlying individuals’ career choices and paths.

Assessing Key Predictors of Career Success: Development and Validation of the Career Resources Questionnaire

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Nagy, N., Baumeler, F., Johnston, C., & Spurk, D. (in press). Assessing Key Predictors of Career Success: Development and Validation of the Career Resources Questionnaire. Journal of Career Assessment.

Abstract

Identifying predictors of career success is one of the most considered topics in career research and practice. However, the existing literature suggests a vast array of potential predictors that cannot be economically measured. This significantly limits research and practice. To address this issue, we have integrated theoretical and meta-analytic research to propose an integrative framework of career resources, including human capital, environmental, motivational, and career management behavior resources represented by 13 distinct factors. In a multi-step process, we have developed the Career Resources Questionnaire (CRQ) to assess these factors in workers and college students. In two studies encompassing 873 workers and 691 students, we have confirmed reliability and factor structure, convergent validity with existing scales, and criterion validity with indicators of subjective and objective career success. The developed measure can provide researchers and practitioners with a reliable, concise, and comprehensive measure to assess key predictors of career success.

Protean career orientation, vocational identity, and self-efficacy: An empirical clarification of their relationship

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Jaensch, V., & Herrmann, A. (2017) Protean career orientation, vocational identity, and self-efficacy: An empirical clarification of their relationship. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(2), 208-220.doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2016.1242481.


Abstract

There is a large interest in how people can be more protean in their career development, exhibiting a self-directed striving for personally valued career outcomes. However, existing research on the protean career needs to better address issues of antecedents and outcomes as well as unique effects of a protean career orientation (PCO). We present two studies investigating how PCO is related to vocational identity clarity and occupational self-efficacy. Study 1 reports a one-year, three-wave cross-lagged study among 563 university students and established that PCO preceded changes in identity and self-efficacy – but not the other way around. A six-month longitudinal study of 202 employees, Study 2 showed that identity clarity and self-efficacy mediated the effects of PCO on career satisfaction and proactive career behaviors. PCO only possessed incremental predictive validity regarding proactive career behaviors. However, we could not confirm specific direct or mediated effects of PCO on job satisfaction. These results imply that PCO is closely related to vocational identity clarity and self-efficacy because it enhances these career attitudes. Moreover, identity and self-efficacy mediate some but not all of the effects of PCO on important career outcomes.

Keywords: protean career orientation; vocational identity; occupational self-efficacy; job satisfaction; career satisfaction; proactive career behaviors

All in the name of work? Nonwork orientations as predictors of salary, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., Nagy, N., & Spurk, D. (2016). All in the name of work? Nonwork orientations as predictors of salary, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95–96, 45-57, doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2016.07.006.

Abstract

Career development increasingly demands a successful integration of work and nonwork domains. Based on work-nonwork conflict and enrichment theories, this study explored the relationship between nonwork orientations (i.e., family, personal life, and community) and both objective (i.e., salary) and subjective (i.e., career satisfaction) career success and life satisfaction over a period of six months among a sample of 548 employees from Germany. The results generally support the enrichment perspective. Family orientation showed a positive relationship with career satisfaction. All three nonwork orientations, especially family orientation, were positively related to life satisfaction. We also explored gender and age effects but found no differences in nonwork orientations between young employees aged 25–34 years and older workers aged 50–59 years. Men showed lower levels of personal life orientation than women, but no differences in family or community orientation based on gender were found. We also did not observe gender x age interaction effects. We discuss the study's implications for a whole-life perspective on career development, career success, and well-being.

The future work self and calling: The mediational role of life meaning

Andreas Hirschi

Zhang, C., Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., Wei, J., & Zhang, J. (in press). The future work self and calling: The mediational role of life meaning. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1-15, doi:10.1007/s10902-016-9760-y

 

Abstract

Research on calling prevailingly focuses on the positive effects on well-being and career development. However, explorations of the predictors and emergence of callings are sparse. We tested a model in which clarity about the future work self promotes one’s sense of calling through increased life meaning. We sampled 473 Chinese college students with a three-wave panel design over 1 year. Using time-lagged analysis, we found that the future work self at T1 significantly predicted increased life meaning at T2, which, in turn, significantly predicted increased calling at T3. This indirect effect was significant and supported the hypothesized longitudinal mediation model. The reverse effects of one’s calling as a predictor of self-clarity about one’s future work life or life meaning were not confirmed. Our findings suggest that among Chinese college students, self-clarity about one’s future work life and understanding one’s life meaning are two important steps in the development of one’s calling.

Latent profiles of work motivation in adolescents in relation to work expectations, goal engagement, and changes in work experiences

Andreas Hirschi

Valero, D. & Hirschi, A. (2016). Latent profiles of work motivation in adolescents in relation to work expectations, goal engagement, and changes in work experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 93, 67-80, doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2016.01.003.

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Abstract

Motivation plays a key role in successful entry into working life. Based on a cross-sectional and a one-year longitudinal study, we used a person-centered approach to explore work-related motivation (i.e., autonomous goals, positive affect, and occupational self-efficacy) among 577 students in 8th grade (Study 1) and 949 adolescents in vocational training (Study 2). Based on latent profile analysis, in both studies we identified four groups that were characterized by different levels of overall motivation and one group characterized by low positive affect and mean levels in autonomous goals and self-efficacy. Profiles characterized by high levels of motivation showed the highest levels of positive work expectations and goal engagement and the lowest levels of negative work expectations in Study 1 and the highest levels of person-job fit, work engagement, and job satisfaction in Study 2. Moreover, latent difference score analysis showed that motivational profiles predicted changes in person-job fit and work engagement across one year but not in job satisfaction. The results imply that career counselors should be aware of characteristic motivational patterns of clients that may require specific counseling approaches.

Competitive climate and workaholism: Negative sides of future orientation and calling

Andreas Hirschi

Keller, A., Spurk, D., Baumeler, F., & Hirschi, A. (2016). Competitive climate and workaholism: Negative sides of future orientation and calling. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 122-126, doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.061

Abstract

The perception of a competitive climate at work creates stress, uncertainty, and a desire to outperform colleagues. In this study, we investigated whether a competitive climate is associated with increased workaholism. Furthermore, we assumed that especially employees with a future orientation and a presence of a calling will show more workaholic behavior when a competitive climate is present. Hierarchical regression analyses among 812 employees in Germany confirmed our hypotheses: Competitive climate was positively related with workaholism and was stronger related to workaholism under conditions of high future orientation and high calling. These findings suggest that contextual factors at work and individual factors interact to form workaholism. Our results may be explained by the experience of more uncertainty in competitive work climates for individuals with high future orientation and the presence of a calling. Consequently, these employees may invest more physical and cognitive efforts into their work to cope with the competition.

A new perspective on workaholism: The role of personal and contextual career-related antecedents

Andreas Hirschi

Spurk, D., Hirschi, A., & Kauffeld, S. (in press). A new perspective on workaholism: The role of personal and contextual career-related antecedents. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(2), 747-764. doi: 10.1177/106907271561612751


Abstract

The aim of the present study was to present and test a model assuming that career-related variables might function as antecedents of workaholism—the tendency to work compulsively and excessively. More specifically, based on conservation of resource theory and social identity theory, the study tested whether personal (i.e., career insecurity, extrinsic career goals, and career commitment) and contextual variables (i.e., career barriers and perceived organizational support) are related to workaholism. We tested our assumptions by means of stepwise hierarchical regression analyses within a large sample of N = 685 scientists working in different occupational fields (e.g., social science, arts and humanities, economics, and science, technology, engineering, mathematics) in German research institutes and universities. The results showed that career insecurity, career barriers, career commitment, and extrinsic career goals were positively associated, and perceived organizational support was negatively associated, with workaholism. Furthermore, the set of analyzed career variables showed incremental validity and explained a significant portion of variance in workaholism beyond control variables (i.e., gender, age, work hours, and occupational field) and personality (i.e., extroversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism).