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Publications

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Filtering by Tag: career success

Competition in Career Tournaments: Investigating the Joint Impact of Trait Competitiveness and Competitive Psychological Climate on Objective and Subjective Career Success

Andreas Hirschi

Spurk, D., Keller, A. C., & Hirschi, A. (2019). Competition in career tournaments: investigating the joint impact of trait competitiveness and competitive psychological climate on objective and subjective career success. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology ,doi : 10.1111/joop.12238


Abstract

This study investigates the joint impact of trait competitiveness (i.e., the enjoyment of interpersonal competition and the desire to win and be better than others) and competitive psychological climate (i.e., the degree to which employees perceive organizational rewards as contingent upon comparisons of their performance against that of their peers) on objective and subjective career success. Based on tournament and person–environment fit theory, we assumed that the positive effects of trait competitiveness on different indicators of objective (i.e., salary, promotions) and subjective (i.e., career satisfaction, internal marketability, and meaningful work) career success are stronger under conditions of a highly competitive psychological climate. Moderated regression analyses using data from a 6-month time-lagged study of 340 employees working in diverse occupational fields in their early careers revealed joint effects of the two competition variables. For both objective and subjective career success, the effect of trait competitiveness was strengthened under conditions of a highly competitive psychological climate. We discuss the results by integrating theoretical reasoning from a tournament and person– environment fit perspective on the attainment of career success.

Keywords: career success, tournament theory, trait competitiveness, competitive psychological climate

Practitioner Points

  • Organizations should be aware that competitive environments, and specifically their related perceptions, are only beneficial for some employees’ career success

  • Within perceived highly competitive organizational contexts, personnel selection and development should consider competitive traits of employees when deciding about hiring and career planning

  • Career counselors may consider perceived organizational climates and competitive personal characteristics when objective and subjective career success is of topic in the counseling process

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Antecedents and Outcomes of Objective versus Subjective Career Success: Competing Perspectives and Future Directions

Andreas Hirschi

Spurk, D., Hirschi, A., Dries, N. (2019). Antecedents and outcomes of objective versus subjective career success: Competing perspectives and future directions. Journal of Management, 45(1), 35-69. doi:10.1177/014920631878656


Abstract

This review examines competing perspectives relating to (a) the range and prevalence of different theoretical approaches to the study of career success and (b) the need for a theoretically differentiated understanding of the antecedents of objective (OCS) versus subjective (SCS) career success. Furthermore, the review complements the assumption that OCS and SCS are only ultimateoutcomes of careers, proposing instead that career success also acts as an antecedent to other career and life outcomes. Against the backdrop of an organizing resource management framework, we present and critically evaluate the results of a systematic analysis of the theoretical approaches used to empirically study the antecedents of OCS and SCS. Furthermore, we develop a taxonomy of outcomes of career success. Our review findings show a theoretical heterogeneity with some dominant theoretical approaches within research of antecedents of career success. Moreover, past research started to adopt different theoretical approaches when predicting OCS (e.g., approaches focusing on personal resources, such as human capital or [competitive] performance) versus SCS (e.g., approaches focusing on personal key resources, such as stable traits). Several types of career success outcomes were identified: withdrawal, career attitudes, health and well-being, reactions from the (work) environment, and self-concept. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for how future research can make sense of the theoretical heterogeneity in career success research, how research on antecedents and outcomes can better account for the OCS/SCS distinction, and how future research can more rigorously integrate research on antecedents and outcomes of career success.

Keywords: objective career success; subjective career success; antecedents; outcomes; systematic review

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Karriere-Ressourcen messen: Validierung der deutschsprachigen Version des Karriere-Ressourcen Fragebogens Assessing Career Resources: Validation of the German-Language Career Resources Questionnaire

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Hänggli, M., Nagy, N., Baumeler, F., Johnston, C., & Spurk, D. (2019). Karriere-Ressourcen messen. Diagnostica. doi:10.1026/0012-1924/a000219


Die existierende Literatur schlägt eine Vielzahl von potentiellen Prädiktoren für Karriereerfolg vor, welche in ihrer Menge kaum auf eine ökonomische Art erhoben werden können. Um diesen Umstand anzugehen, haben Hirschi, Nagy, Baumeler, Johnston und Spurk (2018) den Karriere-Ressourcen Fragebogen (CRQ; Career Resources Questionnaire) entwickelt und in einer englischsprachigen Version validiert. Basierend auf einer Integration von theoretischer und metaanalytischer Forschung misst der Fragebogen 13 distinkte Faktoren, welche 4 übergeordnete Dimensionen repräsentieren: Wissen und KompetenzenMotivationUmfeldund Aktivitätenbezüglich Karriere. In der vorliegenden Studie wird eine Validierung der deutschsprachigen Version mittels N= 1 666 Personen (Studierende und Berufstätige) vorgenommen. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen die Reliabilität sowie die Faktorstruktur des Fragebogens. Mittels Relative-Weight-Analysen konnte zudem die Wichtigkeit von verschiedenen Faktoren für unterschiedliche Arten von Karriereerfolg gezeigt werden. Das Messinstrument bietet Forschenden und Praktizierenden eine ökonomische, reliable und valide Möglichkeit, um Schlüsselfaktoren für Karriereerfolg zu erfassen.

  

The existing literature proposes a large numer of potential predictors of career success which makes it difficult to measure such facilitative factors in a economic way. In order to address this challenge, Hirschi, Nagy, Baumeler, Johnston, and Spurk (2018) have developed and evaulated the Career Resources Questionnaire (CRQ). The CRQ measures 13 factors, represented in 4 higher-level dimensions: Knowledge and Skills, Motivation, Environment, and Activities. In this paper, we aim to validate the German version of the CRQ among N = 1 666 employees and students. The results support the reliability and factor structure and support concurrent and criterion validity regarding similar measures and different indicators of objective and subjective career success. Moreover, relative-weight analyses show that different factors are differently related to various types of career success. We conclude that the German-language CRQ provides an economic, reliable, and efficient tool to assess key predictors of career success.

 

Assessing Key Predictors of Career Success: Development and Validation of the Career Resources Questionnaire

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Nagy, N., Baumeler, F., Johnston, C., & Spurk, D. (in press). Assessing Key Predictors of Career Success: Development and Validation of the Career Resources Questionnaire. Journal of Career Assessment.

Abstract

Identifying predictors of career success is one of the most considered topics in career research and practice. However, the existing literature suggests a vast array of potential predictors that cannot be economically measured. This significantly limits research and practice. To address this issue, we have integrated theoretical and meta-analytic research to propose an integrative framework of career resources, including human capital, environmental, motivational, and career management behavior resources represented by 13 distinct factors. In a multi-step process, we have developed the Career Resources Questionnaire (CRQ) to assess these factors in workers and college students. In two studies encompassing 873 workers and 691 students, we have confirmed reliability and factor structure, convergent validity with existing scales, and criterion validity with indicators of subjective and objective career success. The developed measure can provide researchers and practitioners with a reliable, concise, and comprehensive measure to assess key predictors of career success.

Protean career orientation, vocational identity, and self-efficacy: An empirical clarification of their relationship

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Jaensch, V., & Herrmann, A. (2017) Protean career orientation, vocational identity, and self-efficacy: An empirical clarification of their relationship. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(2), 208-220.doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2016.1242481.


Abstract

There is a large interest in how people can be more protean in their career development, exhibiting a self-directed striving for personally valued career outcomes. However, existing research on the protean career needs to better address issues of antecedents and outcomes as well as unique effects of a protean career orientation (PCO). We present two studies investigating how PCO is related to vocational identity clarity and occupational self-efficacy. Study 1 reports a one-year, three-wave cross-lagged study among 563 university students and established that PCO preceded changes in identity and self-efficacy – but not the other way around. A six-month longitudinal study of 202 employees, Study 2 showed that identity clarity and self-efficacy mediated the effects of PCO on career satisfaction and proactive career behaviors. PCO only possessed incremental predictive validity regarding proactive career behaviors. However, we could not confirm specific direct or mediated effects of PCO on job satisfaction. These results imply that PCO is closely related to vocational identity clarity and self-efficacy because it enhances these career attitudes. Moreover, identity and self-efficacy mediate some but not all of the effects of PCO on important career outcomes.

Keywords: protean career orientation; vocational identity; occupational self-efficacy; job satisfaction; career satisfaction; proactive career behaviors

Do bad guys get ahead or fall behind? Relationships of the dark triad of personality with objective and subjective career success

Andreas Hirschi

Spurk, D., Keller, A., Hirschi, A. (2016). Do bad guys get ahead or fall behind? Relationships of the dark triad of personality with objective and subjective career success. Social Psychological and Personality Science (2), 113-121, doi: 10.1177/1948550615609735. 

Abstract

This study analyzed incremental effects of single Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) on objective (i.e., salary and leadership position) and subjective (i.e., career satisfaction) career success. We analyzed 793 early career employees representative of age and education from the private industry sector in Germany. Results from multiple and logistic regressions revealed bright and dark sides of the Dark Triad, depending on the specific Dark Triad trait analyzed. After controlling for other relevant variables (i.e., gender, age, job tenure, organization size, education, and work hours), narcissism was positively related to salary, Machiavellianism was positively related to leadership position and career satisfaction, and psychopathy was negatively related to all analyzed outcomes. These results provide evidence that the Dark Triad plays a role in explaining important career outcomes. Implications for personality and career research are derived.

The role of chance events in the school-to-work transition: The influence of demographic, personality and career development variables

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A. (2010). The role of chance events in the school-to-work transition: The influence of demographic, personality and career development variables. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(1), 39-49. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2010.02.002