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Publications

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Filtering by Tag: older workers

A Whole-Life Perspective of Sustainable Careers: The Nature and Consequences of Nonwork Orientations

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Steiner, R., Burmeister, A., & Johnston, C. S. (2019). A whole-life perspective of sustainable careers: The nature and consequences of nonwork orientations. Journal of Vocational Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2019.103319


Abstract

Developing a sustainable career necessitates actively considering nonwork roles relative to one’s career. However, little is known about who is more or less likely to consider nonwork roles, and what consequences this entails for a sustainable career development. To address this issue, we investigated the nomological net of nonwork orientations (NWO) in two studies, with five samples (total N= 2,679). Study 1 explored the nomological net of NWO and found that among students and employees, people high in agreeableness more strongly considered the family and community role, whereas those high in extraversion and openness showed higher NWO for private life and community. Moreover, students and employees who endorsed self-transcendence work values scored higher on NWO. Study 2 examined how different combinations of NWO and work role commitment relate to work–nonwork conflict and enrichment with latent profile analysis. Across three samples including younger, age-heterogenous, and older workers, we identified five distinct profiles: average levels, work focused, personal life focused, family and personal life focused, and whole-life focused (i.e., high in NWO and work role commitment). Notably, people with a whole-life profile (between 6% and 29% of the samples) reported more work–nonwork enrichment, and a tendency for less work–nonwork conflict compared to individuals predominately focused on either work or personal life. Moreover, we found some meaningful age group differences which call for more research into lifespan dynamics in sustainable careers. Overall, the results of the studies help to better understand the meaning of NWO and how they relate to a sustainable approach to career development. 

Keywords: nonwork orientations; personality; work values; work commitment; work–nonwork interface

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The Dark Triad and Competitive Psychological Climate at Work: A Model of Reciprocal Relationships in Dependence of Age and Organization Change

Andreas Hirschi

Spurk, D., & Hirschi, A. (2018). The Dark Triad and competitive psychological climate at work: A model of reciprocal relationships in dependence of age and organization change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 27(6), 736-751.doi:10.1080/1359432X.2018.1515200


Abstract

Integrating an interactionist model of personality development, the cumulative continuity model of personality development, and selection-evocation-manipulation theory, the present study analysed reciprocal relations of the Dark Triad common core and its sub-traits of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism with competitive psychological climate. Moreover, within a large (N = 1,185) and longitudinal sample of employees from Germany, latent cross-lagged panel analyses were applied to analyse the moderating roles of age and organization change (i.e., organizational turnover). Overall, results revealed positive reciprocal relations between the Dark Triad common core, its sub-traits, and competitive psychological climate. The Dark Triad common core and Machiavellianism were more stable within the older (50 to 59 years) compared to the younger (25 to 34 years) age group. However, we found no age differences for the relation between competitive psychological climate and change in the Dark Triad common core or its sub-traits. Among employees who changed organizations, the Dark Triad common core, narcissism, and psychopathy were more strongly positively related to the change in competitive psychological climate than in the non-change group. This suggests stronger selection compared to evocation- manipulation effects for individuals with high values in the Dark Triad common core, narcissism, and psychopathy, but not for Machiavellianism.

Keywords: Dark Triad, Competitive Climate, Age, Organizational Turnover, Reciprocity

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Identity Incongruence and Negotiation in the Transition from Work to Retirement: A Theoretical Model

Andreas Hirschi

Froidevaux, A., Hirschi, A., & Wang, M. (2018). Identity incongruence and negotiation in the transition from work to retirement: A theoretical model. Organizational Psychology Review, 8(4), 228-255. doi:10.1177/2041386619830754


In an aging society, dealing with the disengagement from the work-related identity and the quality of retirement adjustment become major concerns for individuals and organizations. However, the processes through which retirement adjustment can be achieved and upon which conditions this depends are only partially understood, especially regarding identity transition processes. To address this issue, we suggest that identity incongruence, identity transition negotiation, and the variety of high-quality exchange relationships represent key factors that explain the different experiences in retirement adjustment quality. Integrating social identity, self-categorization, identity negotiation, and interpersonal perspectives, we develop a theoretical model with 12 propositions highlighting the dynamic changes in identity incongruence across time and the possible co-existence of the work-related identity and the retiree-identity. We also discuss the potential boundary conditions of the model, outline directions for future research, and suggest practical implications at the individual and organizational levels.

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Do we act as old as we feel? An examination of subjective age and job crafting behaviour of late career employees

Andreas Hirschi

Nagy, N., Johnston, C. S., & Hirschi, A. (2019). Do we act as old as we feel? An examination of subjective age and job crafting behaviour of late career employees. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(3), 373-383. doi:10.1080/1359432x.2019.1584183


Ageing research calls for a focus on the mechanisms that can explain effects of ageing beyond the purely chronologic marker of age. To address this issue, the present study focuses on subjective age as a holistic construct that is related to various developmental and motivational processes and allows deeper insights into the interindividual variability of the ageing experience in older workers. Specifically, the current study examines on a sample of N = 485 late career employees (mean age 54 years),if subjective age is related to job crafting behaviours of older workers and whether job crafting is related to higher levels of work meaningfulness in late career. Results indicate that subjective age is significantly negatively related to job crafting behaviour over and above the effect of chronological age, self-rated health and workplace autonomy. Job crafting, in turn, significantly predicted work meaningfulness, above the effect of workplace autonomy. In sum, our study provides evidence for the utility of psychological representations of ageing to understand job crafting at work for an increasingly important segment of the working population.

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Calling as a double-edged sword for work-nonwork enrichment and conflict among older workers

Andreas Hirschi

Hirschi, A., Keller, A. C., & Spurk, D. (2019). Calling as a double-edged sword for work-nonwork enrichment and conflict among older workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2019.02.004


Having a calling has been linked to various positive outcomes, but the potential negative effects of having a calling have not yet received comparable attention. Moreover, research thus far has neglected to examine how callings affect the work–nonwork interface. Based on the work–home resources model, and work–family enrichment theory, we presumed that having a calling can increase as well as deplete personal resources at work, which, in turn, promote work–nonwork enrichment and conflict among older workers. We investigated these assumptions among 599 employees, aged between 50 and 60 years, by examining within-individual changes in presence of calling, positive affect at work, workaholism, work–nonwork enrichment, and work–nonwork conflict over a period of one year, with two measurement points. Results indicated that an increase in the presence of a calling was positively related to increased levels of positive affect at work, which, in turn, was positively related to increased work–nonwork enrichment. However, an increase in the presence of a calling was also positively related to increased workaholism, which was positively related to increased work–nonwork conflict. The findings suggest that having a calling is meaningfully related to the work–nonwork interface among older workers in both positive and negative ways. 

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Lifespan Perspectives on Careers and Career Development

Andreas Hirschi

Nagy, N., Froidevaux, A., & Hirschi, A. (2018). Lifespan perspectives on careers and career development In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work Across the Lifespan (Vol. 1): Elsevier.


Abstract

This chapter intends to contribute to a better understanding of career development over the lifespan by examining individual and contextual factors contributing to life-long career development. Considering manifold changes in the work environment as well as throughout an individual’s career, we review classic theories of career development in the beginning of this chapter. We then describe changes in today’s careers, and depict modern career theories, such as the protean or the boundaryless career. Subsequently, we elaborate on sources of change over the lifespan from an individual perspective: We explain how changes in personality, work values, or goal setting influence career development. From an organizational perspective, we describe how changes in the psychological contract or various age norms may influence the career development of employees. In the last part of this chapter, we outline central career developmental issues for individuals over the lifespan and point out recommendations for organizations in order to help promote meaningful, fulfilling, and sustainable career development over the lifespan. 

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Laufbahnentwicklung und -förderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern

Andreas Hirschi

Nagy, N., & Hirschi, A. (2017). Laufbahnentwicklung und -förderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern [Career development and promotion of older workers]. In S. Kauffeld & D. Spurk (Hrsg.), Handbuch Karriere und Laufbahnmanagement (pp. 1-21). Heidelberg: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-45855-6_32-1

Abstract

Späte Laufbahnentwicklung ist ein Thema von immer größerer Relevanz, da die Lebenserwartung in den westlichen Ländern steigt und durch die zunehmende Unsicherheit der verfügbaren Altersvorsorge viele Menschen länger arbeiten müssen (Riphahn et al. 2006). Des Weiteren ist es auch unabhängig von der finanziellen Situation aus mannigfaltigen Gründen mit Vorteilen verbunden, auch im höheren Lebensalter aktiv zu bleiben. Eine nachhaltige und zu den Fähigkei- ten und Bedürfnissen des Individuums passende Arbeitsumgebung kann nicht nur die physischen und kognitiven Fertigkeiten und Fähigkeiten instand halten (Salt- house 2006), sondern auch soziale und identitätsbildende Funktionen erfüllen (Bal et al. 2015). Des Weiteren sind auch Unternehmen in Zukunft vermehrt auf motivierte und produktive ältere Mitarbeiter angewiesen, um den Bedarf an erfahrenem und fachlich versiertem Personal zu decken (Van der Heijden et al. 2008). Das vorliegende Buchkapitel bietet einen umfassenden Einblick in die breit gefächerten Themen der Laufbahnentwicklung und Karriereförderung von älteren Arbeitnehmern. Als Erstes werden die späten Laufbahnphasen vorgestellt und typische Entwicklungsaufgaben in diesem Lebensabschnitt aufgezeigt. Danach wird die späte Laufbahn aus zwei unterschiedlichen Perspektiven beleuchtet: aus der Perspektive der Organisation, welche ältere Arbeitnehmer beschäftigt sowie auch aus der Perspektive der Arbeitnehmer selbst, bevor ab- schließend weitere nötige Forschung zu diesem Thema identifiziert wird.

The role of mattering as an overlooked key challenge in retirement planning and adjustment

Andreas Hirschi

Froidevaux, A., Hirschi, A. & Wang, M. (2016). The role of mattering as an overlooked key challenge in retirement planning and adjustment. Journal of Vocational Behavior 94, 57-69, doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2016.02.016.50

Abstract

In an aging society, making a successful transition from work to retirement and achieving good quality of retirement adjustment become major concerns for individuals, organizations, and governments. This paper focuses on the particular role of mattering (i.e., individuals' perceptions that they make a difference in the world) as a critical self-concept dimension that may mediate the impact of social interactions on retirement process at two distinct phases. We conducted two studies using time lagged design (with one-year time interval) among older workers 55 years or older (N = 161; Study 1) and retirees (N = 186; Study 2). Study 1 found that mattering mediated the effects of social support at work on life satisfaction but not retirement planning. Study 2 found that mattering mediated the effects of general social support on positive affect but not life satisfaction. Contrary to our expectation, mattering also did not mediate effects of caregiving activities. Overall, our results suggest that mattering represents a critical mechanism that explains some of the positive associations between social support and retirement adjustment quality.

Managing the transition to retirement: From meaningful work to meaning in life at retirement

Andreas Hirschi

Froidevaux, A., & Hirschi, A. (2015). Managing the Transition to Retirement: From Meaningful Work to Meaning in Life at Retirement. In A. De Vos, & B. van der Heijden (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Sustainable Careers (pp. 350-363). Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.